This is a new classification in the DSM-5. It does not recognize Catatonia as a separate disorder, but instead as a specifier that can go along with another medical disorder.
For this diagnosis, a person must have 3 or more of the following:
- Stupor - no body movements and not actively responding to the world around them
- Catalepsy - taking a body position and holding it against gravity
- Waxy Flexibility - resisting being moved or put in a position by another person
- Mutism - no or very little talking
- Negativism - ignoring or having no response to instructions or the world around them
- Posturing - spontaneous taking and holding a position that goes against gravity
- Mannerism - odd or cartoon-like behaviors or actions
- Stereotypy - repetitive, very frequent movements that are not directed toward achieving a particular goal
- Agitation - that does not happen because of anything around them
- Grimacing - making faces
- Echolalia - mimicking what another person is saying or how they are saying it
- Echopraxia - mimicking another person's movements
Additional criteria that must also be met include:
- evidence from the person's history, physical exam or lab tests that show the symptoms are happening because of another medical condition.
- symptoms are not the result of a mental health condition
- symptoms must not happen only during delirium
- symptoms must cause significant stress or affect the person's work/school activities or relationships with others.